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Pavement Distress Summary

DISTRESS POSSIBLE CAUSE MAINTENANCE SUGGESTIONS
Pot Hole
  1. Weak pavement, surface, base, subgrade
  2. Thin surface
  3. Excess or deficient fines
  4. Poor drainage
Cut wet material out, clean and fill with asphalt mix. Allow an extra 25% of volume for compaction. Use a straight edge to restore patch to existing roadway section.
Base Failure
  1. Consolidation of subgrade
  2. Overload in area
  3. Lack of lateral support
  4. Poor drainage
Remove all surface and base to a fine material and replace with an asphalt mix to a minimum depth according to required structural design.
Raveling
  1. Lack of compaction
  2. Constructed in cold or wet weather
  3. Dirty aggregate
  4. Dry mix
  5. Over heating mix
Skin patch, spot seal, fog seal or slurry seal. If required for entire project a thin overlay may be required.
Bleeding
  1. Excess asphalt
  2. Low air voids
  3. Excess prime or tack
Blot with screenings, apply chip surface treatment, or thin overlay. If project is pushing or other signs of plastic movement roto-mill/overlay.
Corrugations
  1. Plastic mixture
  2. Low air voids
  3. Excessive asphalt or fines
  4. Unstable base material
Roto-mill plastic mixture off and replace with proper mixture. If base material is responsible, remove pavement, scarify and re-compact.
Depressions
  1. Consolidation of subgrade
  2. Poor construction
  3. Poor drainage
Clean area, tack and place a hot-mix skin patch. The area should be string lined for limits of patch.
Alligator Cracks
  1. Weak surface, base or subgrade
  2. Thin surface or base
  3. Poor drainage
Remove all distressed area to a depth of firm material and replace with the proper asphalt mix, allowing 25% times depth of patch for compaction.
Dry Surface/Cracking
  1. Old and dried out mix
  2. Mix was placed too dry
Fog seal, slurry seal or overlay.
Edge Cracks
  1. Lack of lateral support
  2. Settlement of underlying material
  3. Shrinkage of drying out soil
Improve drainage. Remove trees, shrubs etc., close to edge. Fill cracks with asphalt emulsion slurry or emulsified asphalt.
Edge Joint Cracks
  1. Wetting and drying beneath shoulder surface
  2. Poor shoulder drainage due to a sholder higher than main pavement
  3. Depression in pavement edge
  4. Shoulder settlement, mix shrinkage and trucks straddling the joint.
Improve drainage by removing the source that traps the water. Fill with asphalt emulsion slurry or light grade of asphalt mixed with fine sand. Provide side drainage ditches.
Slippage Cracks
  1. Lack of a good bond between surface layer and the course beneath
  2. Lack of bond due to dust, oil, dirt, rubber, water and other non-adhesive material
  3. Tack coat has not been used
  4. Mixture has a high sand content
Remove surface layer from around crack until good bond between layers is found. Patch with plant-mixed asphalt material. Tuck with an asphalt emulsion.
Rutting
  1. Results from consolidation or lateral movement under traffic
  2. Displacement in the asphalt surface layer
  3. New asphalt pavements with too little compaction during construction
  4. Plastic fines in mix that does not have enough stability to support traffic. (high -200 material causing low air voids)
Level pavements by filling with hot plant-mired asphalt materials. Follow with thin asphalt plant-mix overlay, or roto-mill and overlay.

Remove plastic mix by milling and replace with stable win.

Loss of Aggregate on Surface Treatments
  1. Not spread immediately (1 minute)
  2. Asphalt may have cooled to much
  3. Aggregate too dusty or too wet when spread
  4. Not rolled immediately after placing it may not become seated
  5. Steel-wheeled roller alone was used for compaction
  6. Weather too cool when treatment applied
  7. Fast traffic too soon after application
Spread over affected areas hot coarse sand. After spreading it should be rolled immediately with a pneumatic-tired roller.
Longitudinal Streaking
  1. Spray bar not set at correct height
  2. Nozzle on spray bar not set at the correct angle
  3. Wrong asphalt pump seed
  4. Asphalt too cold
  5. Pump pressure too low
Re-seal surface using proper procedure and adjustment of equipment.
Moisture Damage (stripping) Identified by pavement shoving, bleeding or rutting
  1. Moisture in pavement by high voids/low density, usually trapped in lower or intermediate layer
  2. Excessive minus 200 material high fines/asphalt ratio
Remove and replace with good mix.
Transverse uniform crack spaces
  1. Low temperature thermal cracking, asphalt grade is too hard for climatic conditions.
Should use softer grade asphalt.

Pour with ASTM 3405 joint material.